Batteries today are omnipresent today that they are invisible to us. Running in cars, digital cameras, drones, bulbs, mechanical tools, inverters, ships, trains, aeroplanes, windmills and even in satellites. The basic science behind the battery is chemical energy converting to electrical energy-containing three main components: Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte.
The revolution in the battery over the years is through several stages of chemical combinations and implementations. Starting from Voltaic Pile to Daniell Cell, then from Lead-Acid to Nickel Cadmium battery, further evolving to Alkaline Battery, Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) and then finally to Lithium-ion battery. These are available in all shapes and sizes as per the need along with its possibly packed power capacity.
Working: The Lithium-ion battery pack consist of graphite, oxygen, metal, and of course, lithium, which runs in a cycle of discharging and charging. While producing energy, the lithium moves back to the positive cathode across the electrolyte, and while charging, the ions move to the positive anode.
Concern Parameters: The 10 parameters that a Lithium-ion battery pack’s development covers are high specific energy, specific power, affordable cost, longer life, better safety, wide temperature operating range, non-toxic, fast charging, lower self-discharge and longer shelf life. In the early stages, the cost of a Li-ion battery was $3000 per kWh, while Lead-acid battery cost $150 per kWh.