The concept that a single molecule can have many different biological activities was viewed with scepticism at first, but the emergence of molecular cloning of cDNA cytokines and the subsequent expression of recombinant forms has dispelled doubts.
Cytokine research has made rapid progress and exposes it to a multifunctional biological agent in a wide variety of human conditions. You can get the information on multiplex cytokine assay by browsing various sites on the internet.
The doubling of cytokine function is demonstrated in host protection and immune response. Microbial infection stimulates the release of various cytokines that exercise various mechanisms to combat the invasion.
At the same time, additional cytokines support dendritic cells in presenting antigens to microbes, leading to the production of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of cytokines' action has increased evolutionary pressure as alternatives to host protection and immune responses. This makes the study of disease response much more problematic and again underlines the need to study a number of cytokines, or cytokine receptors, at the same time.
In some cases, the immune response overreacts and changes the cytokines in the body that they are supposed to protect. When the cytokine cascades fail to close, they place the host in a chronically active cell state that dominates an inactive immune system. The clearest example of this manifestation of hypersensitivity is an unnecessary inflammatory and febrile response, both of which can be life-threatening if left untreated.